Briefly describe the factors that affect the activity of enzymes?

Factors Affecting Enzyme Activity:

Factors Affecting Enzyme Activity

Enzymes are very sensitive to the environment in which they work, Any factor that can change the chemistry or shape of the enzyme molecule can affect its activity. some of the factors that can affect the rate of enzyme action are being discussed here.

(i) Temperature

An increase in temperature speeds up the rate of enzyme-catalyzed reaction, butt m only to a point. Every compound work at its highest possible amount at a particular heat range known as the best possible heat range for the enzyme.
When the temperature rises to a certain limit, the heat adds in the activation energy and also provides kinetic energy for the reaction. So reactions are accelerated. But when the temperature is raised well above the optimum temperature, heat energy increases the vibration of atoms of enzyme and the globular structure of the enzyme is lost. This is known as the denaturation of the enzyme. It results in a rapid decrease in the rate of enzyme action and it may be blocked completely. 

(ii) Substrate Concentration:

In enzymatic reaction, if we increase the concentration of subtracting the rate of reaction also increases. If enzyme concentration is kept constant and the amount of substrate is increased. a point is reached where any further increase in substance concentration does not increase the rate of reaction anymore. When the active sites of all enzyme occupied (at high substance concentration), any more substrate molecules do not find the free active sites. This state is called saturation of active site and reaction rate does not increase.

(iii) pH

All minerals perform at their highest possible amount at a filter variety of pH, known as the best possible pH. A minimal change in this pH causes retardation in substance activity or stops it entirely. Everyone enzyme has a specific optimum pH valve. For example, pepsin ( working in the stomach) is active in acidic medium (low pH) while trypsin (working in the small intestine) Shows its activity in alkaline medium (high pH). Change in pH can affect the ionization of the amino acids at the active site.

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