Introduction of s block elements

S-Block Elements:

“The metals of group IA and IIA are called s-block elements
They are called the s-block elements because s-orbitals are being filled, in their outermost shells. The s-block elements consist of,
  • Group IA:  Alkali metals.
  • Group IIA: Alkaline metals.

Alkali Metals:

“The elements of group IA except hydrogen are called Alkali metals”
Alkali metals include the elements, lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium and francium.
The name alkali came from Arabic, which means “The Ashes”. The Arabs used this phrase for these materials because they discovered that the Ashes of vegetation were consisting generally of salt and potassium



These are very reactive metals, and produce a strongly alkaline solution with water.
Alkali metals

Alkaline Earth Metals:

“The elements of group IIA are called Alkaline earth metals”
The alkaline-earth metals are beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium, and radium.
They are called alkaline-earth because they produce alkalies in water and are widely distributed in the earth’s crust.
Alkaline Earth Metals:
NOTE:
 “The alkali and alkaline-earth materials include the most sensitive electropositive components and look of their digital settings will help understand their qualities.”


ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATIONS OF S-BLOCK ELEMENTS.
Alkali Metals:
  • Alkali metals have only one electron in ‘s’ orbital of their valance shell.
  • All alkali metals lose their one electron of the valance shell too from mono positive ions M+1 because their ionization energy values are very low.
  • They form ionic compounds and show a +1 oxidation state.
ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATIONS OF S-BLOCK ELEMENTS.

Alkaline-Earth Metals:

  • Alkaline earth metals have two-electron in ‘s’ orbital of their valance shell
  • All alkaline earth metals lose their two-electron to from di-positive ions M2+ because their ionization energy values are low.
  • They form ionic compounds and show a +2 oxidation state.
Alkaline-Earth Metals:
NOTE:
 In going down the group the number of shells increases by one at each step and equal to the number of the period to which the element belongs.

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