MALE AND FEMALE SEX HORMONES.
The male and female sex hormones are structurally related to steroids responsible for the development of sex characteristics and sexual processes in animals. Sex hormones are produced in the gonads (ovaries and testes) when the latter is stimulated by other gonadotropic hormones. The formula sex Hormones are involved in the menstrual cycle, the changes in the and the preparation for and maintenance of pregnancy.
Oral contraceptives have been developed this continuum synthetic compounds structurally similar to progesterone and estriol but modified chemically permit easier assimilation man the bloodstream.
These synthetic agents, when taken orally, suppress ovulation and mimic pregnancy.
The male sex hormones, called androgens, except for the absence of an aromatic ring, are very similar in structure to the female hormones. The male sex hormones control the development of the male genital tract and the secondary male characteristics – e.g., beard, voice. The structures of the principal male sex hormones are shown below.
Cortisone and its derivative, 17-hydroxycorticosterone, are two steroids produced by the adrenal cortex. These compounds have been used with beneficial results in the treatment of inflammatory and allergic diseases. The structures of cortisone and its reduced form, 17-hydroxycorticosterone, are given below.
Anabolic steroids are a group of highly effective compounds that are closely related chemically to the male sex hormone testosterone. These artificial were developed in the 1930s originally to help men whose bodies produced amounts of the natural hormone that is responsible for the development of masculine characteristics as puberty, a lowering of the voice, and growth of body hair.
Physicians seldom prescribe steroids today and the few remaining medical uses for that are
generally limited to the treatment of certain kinds of anemia, serious burns, and some types of breast cancer.
Steroid abusers subject themselves to more than 70 adverse reactions ranging in severity from liver cancer to pimples and encompassing psychological as well as physical reactions. The parts of the body that are most seriously suffering by steroids are the liver and the cardiovascular and reproductive systems. In males, steroids can cause withered testicles, sterility, and importance. In females, irreversible masculine traits can create along with menstrual irregularities, breast reduction, and sterility. Psychological effects in both genders include aggressive, combative behavior is known as “roid rage” and depression. Some adverse reactions may not show up for years, such as heart attacks and strokes, and some might not even be recognized as adverse reactions, such as failure to achieve full-size potential because of arrested bone development during adolescence,
Most steroids used unlawfully are obtained through the black market from underground laboratories and foreign sources. The quality and cleanliness of such drugs are questionable at best. Furthermore, while steroids may build muscles, their intended effect – increased strength – may be office by the fact that the force of muscular and ligaments doesn’t increase with muscle strength. This imbalance may result in injuries that take a long time to heal. Little research has been done to assess the long-time effects of steroid use; nor is there much medical proof of the effects on women and adolescents. Young people whose bodies are still creating are particularly vulnerable, as are women because they have less of the natural hormone.
POINTS TO REMEMBER.
- The steroids are natural products that have in common the 4-cycle, the skeletal structure of 1,2- pentenophenanthrene.
- Steroids with one or more hydroxyl groups may be culled sterols.
- The most abundant steroids of animal origin are cholesterol, ergosterol, sex hormones, and cortisone.