Preparation. Fumaric acid is prepared:
(1) By boiling maleic acid with hydrochloric acid or sodium hydroxide.
(2) By oxidation of furfural with sodium chlorate.
Fumaric Acid Properties.
Fumaric acid forms colourless,small monoclinic prisms,mp 287°C. It is very soluble in water and ethyl alcohol,and moderately soluble in ether. Being the trans-isomer, it behaves like a normal dicarboxylic acid with isolated COOH groups. It gives all the reactions shown by maleic acid, except that it does not form anhydride on heating.
Fumaric Acid Uses.
Fumaric acid is used.
- In foods as substitute of citric acid and tartaric acid.
- As mordant.
- In making inks.
- As modifier for polyesters.
Fumaric Acid Structure.
Fumaric acid is trans-butenedioic acid is the chemical compound with the formula HO2CCH=CHCO2H. Fumaric acid has like a fruit taste and has been used as food acidulant since 1946. Fumaric acid E number is E297.
Fumaric Acid Hazards.
The following Fumaric Acid Hazards acute short-term health effects may occur immediately or shortly after exposure to Fumaric Acid:
- Fumaric acid Irritate and burn the eyes and skin.
- Fumaric acid Irritate the nose and throat causing coughing and wheezing.
- There is no proof that Fumaric Acid causes cancer in animals.