Glutamine is studying the physiology of animals and humans, it is an important neurotransmitter to carry out the nervously synaptic connection.
One of the important meanings for the presence of the neurotransmitter is its effect during training and improving memory. The need for glutamine increases with physical and mental stress.
In the synthesis of the amino acid involved various enzymes in the body. As it can remove the effect of the accumulation of ammonia in the blood.
The same applies to people with neurological disorders as the cause of the development of certain neurological (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, and epilepsy) diseases could be the stimulation of glutamate receptors.
Delivery of essential trace elements facilitates the production of skin cells and slows down aging.
The sources of glutamic acid are foods that contain quantities of proteins, all kinds of meat, fish, eggs and dairy products. Certain plant foods rich in proteins also contain glutamic acid.
It is important before the consumption of glutamic acids to consult patients with a doctor or pharmacist. Because of the observed side effects (incl. Headache, weight gain, and depression).
People in good health do not require additional intake of glutamic acid as a supplement.
Moreover, the glutamic acid was coupled with the sodium to form monosodium glutamate – a substance that is synthesized by the organism as a stimulator of the taste buds. That is why the compound is widely used in the food industry as an enhancer of the taste of food, known as E-621.
Glutamic Acid Production.
In the body, the collector of all amino groups of the CA is glutamic acid, and only it is subjected to oxidative deamination by the formation of ammonia and α-ketoglutaric acid. Enzyme glutamate is present in the mitochondria of all cells of the body, except in the muscles. Considering the close relationship between these two stages, indirect oxidative deamination called trans desalination.
Through transamination of alpha-ketoglutarate with alanine by amines transferase to form pyruvate and glutamate.
In the reaction of the amino acid alanine, which is a donor of the amino group and alpha-keto acid, which is the ketoglutarate, which is the acceptor in this process. By environment enzyme aminotransferase with available cofactor pyridoxal phosphate results in the formation of two products, one is glutamic acid. Thus, these reactions in the body are disposed of free ammonia in the blood.
The importance of glutamate is involved in the Cycle of alpha-ketoglutarate.
Glutamic Acid Structure.
Molecular formula: C5H9NO4
The molar mass of the compound is 147,13 g/mol.
The appearance is powder, crystal-white substance.
The substance is soluble in water. Not flammable.
In the composition ai has two carboxyl groups and has one amino group. Its non-trivial name is 2–Aminopentanedioic acid.
Another physical constant is its melting point that is 199 degrees Celsius. In such degrees was observed and its decomposition to nitrogen, carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen, its constituent components.
When synthesized and separate compartment in an airtight vessel has optimal conditions to be 25 degrees Celsius and atmospheric pressure 101Pa.
Salts and glutamic acids are called glutamates. They are formed by the reaction of glutamic acid of sodium hydroxide or other alkali or alkaline earth hydroxide.
Characteristic of amino acids
is rotated in the morning kind enantiomer relative to the presence of a chiral carbon atom. Such optical spinning is either to the left ( opposite of clockwise) or right side (counter-clockwise).
Another important condition is in alpha-amino acids have a carboxylic acid, which is located close to the amino group. Counting starts from the chain with the carboxyl group that is in proximity to the amino group. When the amino group is linked to the first carbon atom adjacent to the carboxyl group means that amino acid. In case the amino acid is of the alpha type.
at a connection with another amino acid
forms a dipeptide and a further of a polypeptide, the process of polypeptide formation is accompanied by removal of water with a number molecule as in the formation of a dipeptide is a water molecule, and in more than two amino acids binding is an increase with each joined to the preceding amino acid and the compartment of the water molecule.
Author. Nidelina Petkova