At first carbon atom linked with a link to a functional group is called alpha, second – beta, the
third was gamma and so on. It is important to determine the type of radical which may be saturated, unsaturated.
Radical has a fixed number of carbon atoms that form the skeleton. The chain has a molecular weight which depends on relative radicals. In the presence of several functional groups counting starts from this group which is offset to the main chain and the highest of the macromolecule.
The acyl group is an organic functional group.
Present in the compounds, such as ketones, aldehydes, amides, esters, carboxylic acids, and others. The acyl group can be found in some literature and as an acyl moiety.
The functional group is brought into the following form: RCO;
The ending which is used is – yl represents the name of the moiety of various kinds of organic acids:
-Formyl (HCO-) name of fumaric acid or formic acid (HCOOH);
-Acetyl (CH3CO- ) name obtained from ethanoic acid (acetic acid – common name (CH3COOH );
-Propionyl (CH3CH2CO-) name propanoic acid (CH3CH2COOH);
– Butynoate (CH3CH2H2CO-) name obtained from the residue of butanoic acid (CH3CH2CH2COOH);
– Benzoyl (C6H5CO-) derivative of benzoic acid ( C6H5COOH);
The general formula for the order of:
– alkanes is an acyl group are CnH2n+1CO-
– alkenes with an acyl group are CnH2n-1CO-
– alkynes with an acyl group are CnH2n-3CO-
Types of acyl groups.
The acyl group is present in ketones – R – CO- R,
with aldehydes – RCOH;
in esterification – RCOOR;
in amides – RCONR (1,2);
Acyl group exists in the form of a radical ( for example CH3CO ) it is important that on the basis of a free the electron can be obtained pairing by a radical mechanism of homogeneous type. In this way a chain Accession respectively extension.
In some materials, the acyl group may be added in the presence of acetyl chloride by the method of Fidel- Crafts in an environment with a catalyst which is a promoter (activator) of the present process. The catalyst is the presence of aluminum trichloride, this type of catalyst is excreted unchanged in the process passing through a conversion because it reacts with the surface. In the course of the reaction is removed and the presence of hydrogen chloride and an acyl derivative of the base.
Chain – the radical mechanism for chain extension by a substitution reaction by a method of Fidel – Crafts. chain – the radical mechanism by homogeneously distributed in connecting Valention electrons to a functional group other radical to hydrogen leads to the formation of various compounds – acyl amides, acyl amines, esters, ketones, aldehydes, acyl halides;
acyl amides (RCO:NH-R) , acyl amines (RCO:NR (1,2) ) , esters (RCO:OR) , ketones (R O:R) , aldehydes (RO:H) , acyl halides (RCO:X) ,(X = F, Cl, Br , J) ; elements of 7 “A” group
Some catalysts containing alkyl group and available e-element of the secondary b groups. This type of catalyst is referred to as an organometallic. It even has the chemistry that deals with the study of organometallic compounds and their application in the synthetic processes and their application as catalysts.
Author : Nidelina Petkova
Location: Varna, Bulgaria