Steroids structure | Cholesterol, Ergosterol |

Steroids.

Steroids are basically lipids that are naturally occurring.

Structure of Steroids:

The parent nucleus of steroids has consisted of four rings. Three rings are six-membered and the fourth one is five-membered.
The parent nucleus has perhydrocyclopentanophenanthrene component.

Structure of Steroids:
These rings are fused with each other and have a total of seventeen carbon atoms.
Different types of groups can be attached to these rings. Even a small variation in the bonding of the atoms in the rings and the groups attached to the changes the properties of steroids to a great extent. There happens a diverse in their biological functions.


Some of the important steroids are followed:
  1. Cholesterol.

  2. Ergosterol.

  3. Male and female sex hormones.

  4. Hormones of the adrenal cortex.

Cholesterol.

It is one of the most abundant animal steroids. It occurs in all the animals is but in a few higher plants.
Cholesterol is present in both free as well as in esterified form in:
  1. Blood.

  2. Animal tissues.

  3. Eggs.

  4. Yolk.

  5. Various oils and fats.

  6. Nerve tissues.

Side Effects:

When the cholesterol deposits are increased in the blood, then it causes blood pressure and other heart diseases.

Structure:

The structure of cholesterol is given as follows:

structure of cholesterol.

Ergosterol:

It is a sterol of fungi and yeast. When it is exposed to U.V. radiations, it is converted to ergocalciferol or vitamin D.

Phospholipids:

These molecules are of enormous biological importance. In these compounds, two of the – OH groups are esterified with a fatty acid. The third -OH group forms a link with H3PO4 or a derivative of H3PO4.

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